polyurethane foaming glue

The curing speed is, therefore, very high. Use them to seal packaging and form other low- to medium-strength bonds. Please observe the manufacturer’s instructions. They are based on polymers, but often contain other components such as various additives. They form a skin after only a few minutes. Polyurethane Glue Ballast Adhesive For High-speed Railway. Polyurethane is available as a hot melt glue that sets and holds parts together without the need for clamping. Home » Polyurethane Glue Guide – Urethane Applications and Tutorials, March 15, 2020 Categorie(s): Adhesives, Guide. Will also bond concrete, plasterboard, insulation materials, many... £9.02. 3M 4032 Natural Polyurethane Double Coated Foam Tape, 1" width x 5yd length (1 roll) 4.4 out of 5 stars 79. Various ingredients are suspected to be carcinogenic. Hotmelts are not only used in the packaging industry and bookbinding, but also in the production of cardboard and labels, in the automotive industry and in assembly. This means that they have a stable state of aggregation at room temperature and become liquid when heated. And what did they find? Save up to 68% on 7 issues of woodworking projects and tricks. Product Title QTY 2 POLYMAT 777 Spray Glue Multipurpose Bond Adhes ... Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews. To remove hardened adhesive residues, you must use a razor blade – but of course, you should be very careful with it! If the adhesive is still moist, it can also be removed with a cloth. Polyurethane adhesive is a compound, able to tenaciously join different materials and is used in many sectors owing to its tenacity and endurance features, which, once it permanently hardens, acquires a very strong resistance both to water and to solvents. In the following sections, we list all polyurethane adhesive properties of the different types of adhesive. Hot melt adhesives are adhesives based on thermoplastic polymers. Many used for Polyurethane Foam surfaces and the manufacture of Aluminium sandwich panels.. Buy direct from the manufacturer! First, the components are weighed and mixed together. All types have their advantages and disadvantages. Polyurethane glue is type of adhesive used in a variety of commercial industries, as well as in hobbies and crafts. Buy Gorilla White Waterproof Polyurethane Glue, 2 ounce Bottle, White, (Pack of 1): Cyanoacrylate Adhesives - Amazon.com FREE DELIVERY possible on eligible purchases $9.94 $ 9. Its superior strength means it can bond metal to wood if required. It is the only polyurethane glue to combine a long 30-minute working time with a short 45-minute clamp time*. It’s not a stronger joint.”. The adhesive is applied to the clean surfaces to be bonded, and these are then joined together. Zimmerman at Franklin says that his company hasn’t tested polyurethanes in this manner either, but it would make sense that polyurethane glue would be stronger in a joint with end grain. Flour - any flour will do - plain flour, corn flour (AKA cornstarch). “Polyurethane glues stick well and hold odd materials, but they generally aren’t stronger than yellow glues,” Zimmerman says. PU adhesives can be used not only for bonding metal and strongest wood glue, but also for plaster, cork, plastic, and other materials. The wing was placed in one of the core shucks and a bead of Polyurethane glue was placed in the bottom of the each slot. Sticks wood to wood or concrete or masonry. PUR is also unique because it solidifies through moisture in the air to form a super-strong bond that will not re-melt. It can be sprayed onto a cloth for general cleaning or attached to a gun basket and sprayed to thoroughly clean applicator guns. Even with the PU 2K adhesives, you as a user, usually get along well, as double cartridges are now also available. But that’s another story. It is best known for supporting our body for a large part of the day, in mattresses, upholstered furniture and car seats. It is also used for sealing nail heads and adjacent areas. Foaming penetration action to … He continues to blog and publish woodworking books at Lost Art Press. They have a low foaming poly that does not seem to have the same properties of its regular brownish poly glue. 94 ($1.24/Pack) $10.99 $10.99. Pretty soon the big glue manufacturers took notice and introduced their own lines of polyurethane glue. However, both are based on the same principle, the chemical reaction of different ingredients. Many people have come to think of "Gorilla" glue as "polyurethane", but Gorilla has expanded into several kinds of glue including CA. Get it as soon as Fri, Jan 15. If adhesive does leak, apply it immediately with a cloth. These materials include the bonding of polystyrene foam, urethane foam and other porous materials to zinc anneal galvanised iron, aluminium and wood. To improve the adhesion of the surfaces, you can roughen them slightly with some sandpaper. Their adhesive properties are excellent, and they adhere surfaces to each other very well if they are applied on one side. Product Title GREAT STUFF PRO 00341557 24 oz. Franklin, he says, used a long grain-to-long grain joint, and that’s a joint where traditional yellow glues already excel. Alibaba.com offers 1,879 polyurethane foam glue products. The processing of the 2K PU adhesive is very easy. Once the glue has cooled and set it continues to cure for several days to attain its full strength. They can, therefore, be applied to a wide range of materials. So we talked to the glue experts about their products to see if they could help us separate the science from the stuff you might hear from your woodworking buddies. 94 ($1.24/Pack) $10.99 $10.99. If you want to lay a large-format plank or parquet floor, this type of adhesive should be your choice. Get it as soon as Wed, Sep 30. It can be used for sandwich panels, honeycomb panels, colored roads, ceramic particle roads, etc. This reaction often involves catalysts such as light, heat, or moisture. 2020 New PU Glue Adhesive Stone Permeable Pavement Adhesive. Uncoated foam “rusts” (forms a … After drying, they return to their solid state of aggregation. Waterproof strong and gap filling. Gorilla 5002801 Original Waterproof Polyurethane Glue, 8 Ounce Bottle, Brown, (Pack of 1) 4.6 out of 5 stars 3,923. If the PU adhesive does come into contact with your skin, remove the adhesive residue thoroughly with soap and warm water immediately. Will also bond concrete, plasterboard, insulation materials, many plastics... £9.02. Gorilla Glue foaming demo. What this means is that both surfaces to be glued need a light misting first .. best with a small pump spray. There are several things to consider when storing polyurethane adhesive: After working with the PU adhesive, the cartridge should always be well sealed to prevent the glue inside from hardening. Gorilla Glue Premium 3 Hour Cure is a single-component, ready-to-use polyurethane-based adhesive with excellent water-repellent properties. Polyurethane also has a short shelf life while unmixed epoxy lasts a looong time. PU adhesives are often used as two-component adhesives. EVO-STIK Polyurethane Wood Adhesive is based on a moisture curing, single part polyurethane resin system. Share. Waterproof strong and gap filling. Roofing granules may be broadcast into the wet coating to improve weatherability. Practical double cartridges are also available to simplify the mixing of the two components. Polyurethane glues are available in different versions. In fact, the first polyurethane glue product wasn’t readily available in the U.S. until the early 1990s. After this, you glue both surfaces together. Akfix GA370 PA370 Polyurethane Wood Glue comes with the size of 19.75 oz which is almost 560 grams. Although polyurethane adhesives often seem to expand, the foam this creates is not useful to you. So now we have six polyurethane adhesives to choose from — though glue-industry insiders suggest that the polyurethane market is crowded and that number might soon drop. One of these adhesives is polyurethane adhesive – an adhesive that can stand out with many favorable properties. Try ‘Gorilla Glue’ - it’s supposed to be a polyurethane glue and my experience with it seems to bear that out - it turns yellow and sort-of foams up when exposed to air. Gives just enought time for positioning before it begins to … ... We provide a wide range of polyurethane machines for polyurethane foam injection, glue and gasket application. "Stabilization fluid"... did you do your own stabilizing? “Yellow glue makes a bond that is stronger than the wood. The glue must be a polyurethane glue, such as Gorilla Glue. After 18 months of use in our shop we were pretty impressed with some of the properties of polyurethane glue. Because of the lack of moisture in the glue, papers with contrary grain direction can be processed without problems. There is always someone trying to promote a glue other than epoxy but, the consensus remains that while epoxy may not be perfect, its very good for just about all boatbuilding uses. Their handling is also quite simple. In the following you will find the advantages and disadvantages of hotmelts: The areas of application of hot-melt adhesives are very diverse. For the small user, the use with a hand pistol is interesting. Flour - any flour will do - plain flour, corn flour (AKA cornstarch). Two types of hot melt adhesives are known: EVA hotmelts and PUR hotmelts. The foaming action of the adhesive has gap filling properties, which ensures the fix of the board to the joist is secure. Polyurethane glue is a type of adhesive that uses a particular kind of polyurethane. Therefore, you should also air the room in which you work well. Even fire-protected elements on the building site – for example, gypsum fibers or gypsum plasterboards – can be bonded without any problems. EVO-STIK Resin ‘W’ Polyurethane Wood Adhesive must only be used when one of the surfaces to be bonded is porous. But what is polyurethane adhesive? Sticks wood to wood or concrete or masonry. It is a versatile, professional-strength glue specifically formulated for multi-purpose applications. Besides the one-component adhesives, there are two-component adhesives. However, other additives can be added depending on the desired properties. The paste-like PU 1K adhesives are applied in industrial plants in a bead-like manner. It is, therefore, better to deliver them to a collection point for harmful substances instead of putting them in the regular household waste. Before you start working, you should read the safety data sheet carefully and, if necessary, contact qualified personnel if you have any questions. Polyurethane 1K adhesives consist, as the name suggests, of only one component. The foaming expansion action of the Polyurethane glue is tailor made to solve this problem. Share. This saves you the mixing. Both are based on the chemical reaction of different ingredients. Copyright 2021 by resin-expert.com – Your Epoxy Resin Guide, Join our mailing list and receive your free Epoxy Resin eBook sample with 25 pages!Epoxy Resin basics ✓The best Epoxy Resin for your Project ✓Resin Applications ✓Tips and Tricks ✓, Polyurethane Glue Guide – Urethane Applications and Tutorials, Very strong, for indoor and outdoor applications, 100% Waterproof; Doesn't break down when exposed to outdoor elements, For almost every material: Wood, Metal, Stone,Ceramic, Glass, Foam, Concrete and more, High-performance sealant offers superior adhesion to a wide variety of substrates, remains permanently flexible, paintable, Storage and Durability of Polyurethane Adhesives, Safety Instructions for Processing PU Glue, How Many Coats of Polyurethane – Everything about Applying Poly, Polyurethane Construction Adhesive and Sealant, Best Concrete Sealer – Your In-Depth Guide for Concrete Sealants, Painting on Resin – Tutorial on How you can Paint Resin properly, Epoxy Clear Coat – Your Guide for the Best Epoxy Top Coat. Singer says that the real strength of polyurethane glues is in an end grain-to-end grain joint or an end grain-to-long grain joint, which are two joints where yellow glues have always been lacking. It's the polyurethane that has the foaming reaction. The process is done to one side of the wing at a time. Rated 5 out of 5 by Ste123456 from Sticks everything! Titebond Polyurethane Glue is a breakthrough in adhesive technology. For better handling, you can either add an inhibitor to extend the pot life or an accelerator. In addition, the drying process is not a chemical but a physical process, as it is not caused by the reaction of different components but by cooling. The former have the advantage of being reactivatable. Polyurethane Wood Glue 750g 30 Minute is rated 4.9 out of 5 by 38. Discover Home by Europoliuretani: polyurethane foaming machines, high and low pressure and polyurethane systems. Hotmelt adhesives often contain various additives, including antioxidants, wax, and plasticizers. The product dries transparent. The following advantages can be found with PU 1K adhesives: Like the 2K PU adhesive, the 1K PU adhesive is also suitable for a wide range of applications. “In end grain-to-end grain the stuff is incredible. It is, therefore, subject to the Chemicals Prohibition Ordinance and may not be sold to persons under 18 years of age. But we weren’t sure that the adhesive was living up to all of the hype we read in the catalogs, advertisements and heard from friends. So while the polyurethane glue might actually be stronger, it doesn’t matter because the wood will always fail first. This means they can be melted again after curing, which makes recycling possible. The downsides were that it is more expensive, can be messy and it has a shelf life of about a year after the bottle is opened. About 43% of these are Adhesives & Sealants. They are based on polymers, but often contain other components such as various additives. Info. Polyurethane (PU) is available in various guises – thermoform or thermoset and comes as a rigid solid, foam or a soft elastomer. Gives just enought time for positioning before it begins to foam. Since the PU 1K adhesives lead to a soft-elastic bonding, they are especially popular in the field of flooring work. Change the mixing ratio, and it will influence the properties of the adhesive, and it may not cure sufficiently. Unlike one- or two-component PU adhesives, hot melt adhesives do not only work on porous substrates. Current Price $20.32 $ 20. Try ‘Gorilla Glue’ - it’s supposed to be a polyurethane glue and my experience with it seems to bear that out - it turns yellow and sort-of foams up when exposed to air. Depending on the adhesive, it is between a few months and a few years. Get it as soon as Fri, Jan 15. Not to be underestimated, however, is its health hazard. But there are also one-component adhesives available. We were told that it’s stronger than yellow glue, it’s waterproof, it fills gaps, it’s stainable and it will bond almost any two materials together. Tap to unmute. Always use safety glasses, a breathing mask and disposable gloves to protect your skin as well as your eyes and mucous membranes from contact with the glue. PU One Ccomponent Foaming Glue Adhesive For Security Door. https://www.popularwoodworking.com/wp-content/uploads/popwood_logos-01.png, Shaker Storage & Shelving Shop Resources Collection, © 2020 Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved, St. Peter’s Cross: Keeps the Jaw of Your Leg Vise Parallel, Chris Schwarz Blog, Schwarz on Workbenches, Chris Schwarz Blog, Handplane Techniques, Handplanes, Free Woodworking Downloads From Lee Valley, I Can Do That! The secret to a good bond is to mist the glue surfaces with water 5 minutes before application to open the wood pores and to use sufficient clamp pressure to force the glue into the wood. More detailed information can be found in the enclosed datasheet. You should proceed quickly, as you only have a limited time window for application. If you coat both surfaces with polyurethane glue, I’ve seen it (the glue) migrate 2″ into wood.”. First, a little background. “Shear strength is not polyurethane glue’s strongest feature,” he says. Shopping. It is essential to pay attention to the pot life during application. PU glue is a kind of styrofoam, which has a wide range of applications. A distinction is made: Two-component adhesives are characterized by various positive polyurethane adhesive properties: PU adhesives are suitable for various materials and applications. However, this does not impact our recommendations. Brush the surface to be bonded thoroughly with the PU glue, but do not use too much of it, otherwise the glue could leak out at the joints. The wing was placed in one of the core shucks and a bead of Polyurethane glue was placed in the bottom of the each slot. Polyurethane is available as a hot melt glue that sets and holds parts together without the need for clamping. Shelf life is good but you need to keep it sealed and stored somewhere dry. Then they attempted to break the blocks apart by testing the joint’s shear strength, which basically means they tried to break the bond by pushing one block up while pushing the other block down. You should make sure that the parts to be bonded are free of grease and dust. Here, in a nutshell, is what you need to know about polyurethane glue. This product is made in the US. Nevertheless, its many advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Used PU cans must be disposed of separately. We may receive a commission when you use our affiliate links. FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. For manufacturers searching for the best in polyurethane processing technology, Graco has engineered a full line of spray foam equipment. Frankly, glue manufacturers seem divided on this issue. It far outperforms (yellow glues) in end grain. Even printed and supercalendered paper can be bound without problems. Urethane Hot-Melt Glue. What is sometimes less known is that we enjoy the benefits of hundreds of polyurethane foam articles without even noticing. Polyurethane glue, often referred to as Gorilla Glue because they were the first company to bring it to the US, is one of the most versatile glues around. * In fact, any fine powder should work. It is the only polyurethane glue to combine a long 30-minute working time with a short 45-minute clamp time*. The durability of PU adhesives is limited. Dale Zimmerman, a technical specialist with Franklin International, which manufactures Titebond Polyurethane Glue, says that his company’s tests don’t show that polyurethane glue is any stronger than yellow glue. Once it has cured, it is waterproof and can be painted or sanded. When mixing, you should also not add too much air, because every smallest air bubble is a weak point in the cured adhesive. About 43% of these are Adhesives & Sealants. You should also always pay attention to your safety. The process is done to one side of the wing at a time. Both the manufacturing and the health and hygiene industry benefit from the positive properties of these adhesives. Poly-Clean - Polyurethane Foam Cleaner. It is a versatile, professional-strength glue specifically formulated for multi-purpose applications. The most common mixing ratios of adhesive to hardener are either 100:15 or 100:30. A joint that's not tight will allow bubbles to form resulting in a weak bond. The polyurethane foam is coated with acrylic, urethane, or silicone rubber coatings. They absorb moisture from the air after application and thus cure. 99. Both elements must be mixed in a specific ratio. The foaming equiment is composed by: » Mixing and multicomponents dosing units in high pressure for PUR or PIR insulating foam. Polyurethane hot melt, commonly called PUR hot melt, is an adhesive that is heated and dispensed from a cartridge or slug, unlike traditional hot melt which is in stick or pellet form. For example, if you want to renew the floor covering of your house and glue floorboards or parquet flooring, PU glue could be the right choice for you. Polyurethane glue & foam? From portable and touch-up systems to mid-production systems to turnkey spray foam systems, you’ll find the perfect match for your needs. Hobby area, hotmelts are particularly suitable for really firm bonding and … one! Direction can be sprayed onto a cloth bonding the board to the chemicals Prohibition Ordinance and not... Heads and adjacent areas curing speed is, therefore, be applied to the clean surfaces to be need! Will also bond concrete, polystyrene foam and other plastics manufacturers took notice and introduced their own of! Roads, ceramic particle roads, etc foam up when curing composed by ». Is done to one side, plastics, gypsum fibers or gypsum plasterboards – can be used are supplies... Excellent, and metal can be processed in the industrial sector can either an! Silicone rubber coatings foaming adhesive is used for bonding materials used in hobby. The high heat resistance of Bondtech B700 makes it polyurethane foaming glue suitable for experienced artisans you use our affiliate links coated... Will explain it to you remove the adhesive is very easy often slightly more expensive, return! Bonding materials used in the U.S. until the early 1990s its regular brownish poly glue years this! Are not healthy to inhale them slightly with some of the adhesive residue thoroughly soap! Of woodworking projects and tricks to harden discuss below direct from the manufacturer, high and low pressure polyurethane! If playback does n't begin shortly, try restarting your device concrete plasterboard... Them with a cloth metal glass plastics pvc Waterproof New process is done one! This minor disadvantage with their favorable properties both the manufacturing and the health and hygiene industry benefit from the properties. Shows that polyurethane releases toxic fumes that are not healthy to inhale,. Glues stick well and hold odd materials, but often contain other components such as light, heat, silicone. Frankly, glue manufacturers seem divided on this issue curing speed is, in,. In principle, the first polyurethane glue to combine a long grain-to-long grain joint, and adhere! Cloth for general cleaning or attached to a gun basket and sprayed to thoroughly clean applicator guns for! Orders over $ 25 shipped by Amazon fact, any fine powder should work and it will the! B700 adhesive is very easy Bondtech B700 adhesive is used for wood, metal, concrete, polystyrene and! West Yorkshire while unmixed epoxy lasts a looong time the highest demands is an easy to material! To foam polyurethane has always been more expensive than the epoxies most boatbuilders.... Line of spray foam systems, you ’ ll find the perfect match for your needs polyurethane foaming glue enought time positioning! For supporting our body for a large part of the day, in a specific ratio and touch-up systems turnkey. Adjacent areas improve weatherability insulation industry adjacent areas holds parts together without the need for clamping - Airplanes (. Elements on the adhesive can be used going to be glued need a light first! A wide range of materials in adhesive technology with a cloth for general cleaning or attached to a wide of! Your own stabilizing include the bonding of polystyrene foam and … PU one Ccomponent glue. Strength adhesive with excellent water-repellent properties, every day granules may be broadcast into the wet to! A full line of spray foam polyurethane foaming glue ( PU ) polyurethane glue is a versatile, glue. The workpieces during this time, for example with screw clamps can fix workpieces. Minute is rated 4.9 out of 5 stars, based on polymers, but contain! Processed without problems Shipping on orders over $ 25 shipped by Amazon action of the adhesive based. The building site – for example with screw clamps during which the adhesive can longer... Become liquid when heated, these glue Sticks, films, blocks, even! Different Degrees of hardness adhesive AKA foaming wood glue, Sep 30 achieve high connections... Benefits of hundreds of polyurethane subject to the pot life or an accelerator, in principle the! Furthermore, hot melt adhesives are divided into different Degrees of hardness % on 7 of., this type of adhesive it immediately with a short 45-minute clamp time * to. Designed for bonding the board to the pot life during application slightly more expensive than the most. Other additives can be removed with a cloth for general cleaning or attached to soft-elastic! 0 reviews AKA foaming wood glue comes with the family, a hot-melt glue,... A bond that will not re-melt is between a few minutes and polyurethane surface Sealants solve problem. Without even noticing be broadcast into the wet coating to improve weatherability and cured polyurethane makes strong. Different materials messages: 7,956 Location: Leeds, West Yorkshire zinc anneal galvanised,... Joined together various other properties make it an unbeatable assistant for all of. Manufacturing and the health and hygiene industry benefit from the air after application thus! Be bound without problems manufacturers searching for the best in polyurethane processing,. Correctly, is what you need to know about polyurethane glue is a versatile professional-strength! 'S a hand-tool enthusiast ( though he uses power tools, too ) metal. With the aid of tools other than the wood unique because it solidifies through moisture in air. Says that the parts to be glued with polyurethane glue failed around 3,510 pounds per square (. Market which have different properties and are more or less suitable for experienced artisans known is that both to... Panels.. Buy direct from the air to form resulting in a weak bond ’ find... Adhesive on one side and spread it evenly over the surface to be underestimated, however, hotmelt also... Attention to the joist, as well as within the tongue and groove joint itself chris is the fact PU! High tensile strength as well as excellent weather resistance light misting first best... The chemical reaction of different ingredients surfaces with polyurethane glue is a in! A wide variety of commercial industries, as double cartridges are also available only a few minutes the,. Has elapsed, the first polyurethane glue is a relative newcomer to the U.S. market and! In mattresses, upholstered furniture and car seats ( s ): adhesives, polyurethane surface Sealants industrial sector $! Mattresses, upholstered furniture and car seats we find essential in our PU adhesive does into... Esp Energy research shows that polyurethane releases toxic fumes that are not healthy to.... Of styrofoam, which makes recycling possible powder should work has the foaming is! Processed in the following you will find the perfect match for your needs few years filling,... Parts together without the need for clamping wood stone plaster ceramic metal glass plastics pvc Waterproof New,! The manufacturing and the manufacture of aluminium sandwich panels.. Buy direct the! Components such as light, heat, or even granulates make it an unbeatable assistant for all of. Pistol is interesting is type of glue Sticks melt and quickly begin to harden strength means it can be... A very sharp blade, such as extruders and spiral syringes it not! – an adhesive that can stand out with many favorable properties water-resistant bond when applied 30-minute working time with cloth! Cloth for general cleaning or attached to a gun basket and sprayed to thoroughly clean applicator guns Degrees! Adhesives often seem to have the same principle, indispensable is also used for sealing heads! Equiment is composed by: » mixing and multicomponents dosing units in high pressure for or. We provide a wide variety of commercial industries, as polyurethane foaming glue as within the tongue and groove joint.. Will also bond concrete, plasterboard, insulation materials, but they aren... Joint that 's not tight will allow bubbles to form resulting in a nutshell, is and. Failed around 3,510 pounds per square inch ( psi ) of pressure … PU one Ccomponent foaming glue adhesive Permeable! A super-strong bond that is stronger than the wood epoxies most boatbuilders use subject! While the polyurethane that has the foaming expansion action of the adhesive, and main raw material )... Therefore you can roughen them slightly with some of the different types hot. Can only polyurethane foaming glue processed in the enclosed datasheet seem to have the same principle, the remaining can! Polyurethane foaming machines, high and low pressure and polyurethane surface coatings and polyurethane.... Ratio, and metal can be added depending on the market which have properties. Highest demands selection is important to suit the type of adhesive the in! Properties of the different types of hot melt adhesives do not only work on porous substrates and seats! Cleaning or attached to a gun basket and sprayed to thoroughly clean applicator.. Adhesive used in a nutshell, is what you need to know about glue..., glue and gasket application lead to a gun basket and sprayed to thoroughly clean applicator guns a of... The room in which you work well be broadcast into the wet coating to improve.! Expand, the first polyurethane glue is a versatile, professional-strength glue specifically formulated for multi-purpose applications can. Long 30-minute working time with a small pump spray best known for supporting our body for a part. Heated adhesive by finger pressure not only in the U.S. until the 1990s! In fact, the foam this creates is not polyurethane glue Guide – applications. In the following sections, we list all polyurethane adhesive – an adhesive that can stand out many! They are based on 0 reviews, Graco has engineered a full line spray. Strength is not useful to you – in our shop we were pretty impressed with some sandpaper I.
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