soviet political commissar

Voroshilov was awarded a second medal of Hero of the Soviet Union 1968. [7] Frunze's political position adhered to that of the Troika (Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Stalin), but Stalin preferred to have a close, personal ally in charge (as opposed to Frunze, a "Zinovievite"). [19] Stalin had a political need for popular wartime leaders, however, and Voroshilov remained as an important figurehead. The political commissar is often associated with the Soviet Union (1922–91), where the Cheka introduced them [dubious – discuss] to the military forces to ensure the government’s political control. Chiang Ching-kuo, appointed as Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) director of Secret Police in 1950, was educated in the Soviet Union, and initiated Soviet style military organization in the Republic of China Military, reorganizing and Sovietizing the political officer corps, surveillance, and Kuomintang party activities were propagated throughout the military. Two towns were also named after him: Voroshilovgrad in Ukraine (now changed back to the historical Luhansk) and Voroshilov in the Soviet Far East (now renamed Ussuriysk after the Ussuri river), as well as the General Staff Academy in Moscow. An early kind of political commissars arose already during the February Revolution 1917 as the Ispolkom issued the controversial Order no 1. "Communists and the Red Cavalry: The Political Education of the Konarmiia in the Russian Civil War, 1918–20", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, People's Commissar for Defense of the Soviet Union, People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs, Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army", Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945", Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow", Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy", Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR", Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR", Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945", Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, Bibliography of the Post Stalinist Soviet Union, Stalin's Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s, "Ворошилов, Климент Ефремович - это... Что такое Ворошилов, Климент Ефремович? The commissar had an influential role as a "second commander" within the military units during this time. He wrote personal letters to exiled former Soviet officers and diplomats such as commissar Mikhail Ostrovsky, asking them to return voluntarily to the Soviet Union and falsely reassuring them that they would not face retribution from authorities. He was later replaced as Defense Commissar by Semyon Timoshenko. [2] Chiang Ching-kuo then arrested Sun Li-jen, charging him of conspiring with the American CIA of plotting to overthrow Chiang Kaishek and the Kuomintang, Sun was placed under house arrest in 1955.[3][4]. [21], Voroshilov was married to Ekaterina Voroshilova, born Golda Gorbman, who came from a Jewish Ukrainian family from Mardarovka. ... Also called: political commissar an official of the Communist Party responsible for political education, esp in a military unit. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union considered its political officers — known informally in the West as “commissars” — to fill an essential role within military units and aboard warships. At least at private ones. [11] However he also pointed out issues in the Red Army as a whole in his full report. Soviet political commissar Yefim Fomin's (1909-1941) memorial relief on the left side of the Kholm Gate at the Brest Fortress in Brest, Belarus Ren Bishi (30 April 1904 – 27 October 1950) was a military and political leader in the early Chinese Communist Party. [11], When the Great Purge ended, some reforms were undertaken by the high command to reconcile Red Army doctrine (for example deep operations doctrine) with the real state of the Red Army. Stavropol was called Voroshilovsk from 1935 to 1943. It instructed the Wehrmacht that any Soviet political commissar identified among captured troops be summarily executed as a purported enforcer of the " Judeo-Bolshevism " ideology in military forces. [11], Between 1941–1944, during World War II, Voroshilov was a member of the State Defense Committee. Stalin frowned. [10] Voroshilov did not personally share the paranoia towards upper-class elements of the officer corps. the term "commissar" itself was formally abolished in August 1942, and at the company- and regiment-level, the pompolit officer was replaced with the zampolit (deputy for political matters). But his devotion was not very strong. The Commissar Vanishes has been hailed as a brilliant, indispensable record of an era. [11] He praised the army's combined arms warfare capabilities as well as the high quality and ability to take initiative of the officers during the 1936 summer manoeuvers. Brown, Stephen. His family proposed to call an ambulance immediately, but he adamantly refused. However in this period he advocated Stalin very actively, supported him in everything, though not entirely sure in everything. Despite a French Republican origin, the political commissar usually is associated historically with the Soviet Union (1917–91), where the Russian Provisional Government of 1917 introduced them to the military forces to ensure the government’s political control. The Commissar Order (German language: Kommissarbefehl) was an order issued by Adolf Hitler in March 1941, before Operation Barbarossa. He always stood for the political line of the party, because he was from a working class, a common man, very good orator. His main accomplishment in this period was to move key Soviet war industries east of the Urals, so that the Soviet Union could strategically retreat, while keeping its manufacturing capability intact. [1], Brigade commissar Leonid Brezhnev (right) giving a Communist party membership card to a soldier (1942). Working alongside military commander Andrei Zhdanov as German advances threatened to cut off Leningrad, he displayed considerable personal bravery in defiance of heavy shelling at Ivanovskoye; at one point he rallied retreating troops and personally led a counter-attack against German tanks armed only with a pistol. [14] When the leadership gathered at Stalin's dacha at Kuntsevo, Stalin shouted at Voroshilov for the losses; Voroshilov replied in kind, blaming the failure on Stalin for eliminating the Red Army's best generals in his purges. His fortunes declined during the rise of Nikita Khrushchev and the Supreme Soviet removed him from power in 1960. Below army level, the edinonachalie (single command) system was restored. The political representative of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Soviet Army. He was well known for aiding Joseph Stalin in the Revolutionary Military Council, having become closely associated with Stalin during the Red Army's 1918 defense of Tsaritsyn, and one of the Cavalry Army clique. commissar’s role again became more controlling. They had no direct influence on combat decisions as had the political commissar in the Soviet Army. The Soviet Union 1969 CPA 3728 stamp (World War II Hero Political Commissar Nikolay Filchenkov).jpg 740 × 1,012; 137 KB Пропуск-предложение немецких сил к русским перейти на сторону немецкой армии в состав РОА.jpg 620 × 450; 80 KB He played a central role during the Great Purge, denounced many of his own colleagues and subordinates, and personally signed over a hundred execution lists. Its official name was Guidelines for the Treatment of Political Commissars (Richtlinien für die Behandlung politischer Kommissare). [11] He had openly proclaimed that the system was inadequate in an era in which imperialist powers (such as Germany) were expanding the capabilities of their armies. The political supervision of the Russian military was effected by the political commissar, who was introduced to every unit and formation, from company- to division-level, including the navy. On 10 May 1937 the political commissar was re-instated to the Red Army, and Military Councils were created. During a winter night in 1969, the 88 year old Voroshilov started to feel unwell. In 1935, Voroshilov was named a Marshal of the Soviet Union. Political advisers called commissars were attached to all army units to watch over the reliability of officers and to carry out political propaganda among the troops. After Khrushchev removed most of the old bolshevists like Molotov and Malenkov from the party, Voroshilov's career began to fade. Political commissar is similar to these topics: Civilian control of the military, Armed Forces of Ecuador, Corporatism and more. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Voroshilov became a member of the Ukrainian Council of People's Commissars and Commissar for Internal Affairs along with Vasiliy Averin. [11] The politically appointed commanders of the post-purge Red Army saw that the army, especially after the purge, was not suitable to carry out deep operations style warfare. In English, the transliteration "commissar" often refers specifically to the political commissars of Soviet and Eastern-bloc armies or to the people's commissars (effectively government ministers), while administrative officers are called "commissaries". Voroshilov joined the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1905. In 1925, after the death of Mikhail Frunze, Voroshilov was appointed People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, a post he held until 1934. [8] Voroshilov became a full member of the newly formed Politburo in 1926, remaining a member until 1960. Voroshilov was then made Deputy Premier responsible for cultural matters. The political commissar (also politruk Russian: политрук from политический руководитель: political officer) is the supervisory political officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization, and committed to the civilian control of the military. The deeply ideological nature of the Germans' fight against the Soviet Union was reflected in the "Commissar Order" issued by the German Armed Forced High Command on June 6, 1941.. ", https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rey0PNEsNZw, http://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/45/794/10169.pdf, http://www.as-add.de/Dosya/tarih/cumhuriyet/469-InonuC2.html, Collection of Soviet songs about Klim Voroshilov, Newspaper clippings about Kliment Voroshilov, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, 20th Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 19th Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 18th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 17th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 16th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 15th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 14th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kliment_Voroshilov&oldid=1000628702, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party members, Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union members, Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) members, First convocation members of the Soviet of the Union, Second convocation members of the Soviet of the Union, Third convocation members of the Soviet of the Union, Fourth convocation members of the Soviet of the Union, Fifth convocation members of the Soviet of the Union, Sixth convocation members of the Soviet of the Union, Seventh convocation members of the Soviet of the Union, Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, Recipients of the Order of Suvorov, 1st class, First convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Second convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Third convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Fourth convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Articles containing Ukrainian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Order of the Red Banner of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (17 February 1930), Order of the Red Banner of the Tajik SSR (№ 148 – 14 January 1933), Order of the Red Banner ZSFSR (25 February 1933), Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic (29 May 1957), This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 23:57. In the morning he put on his military uniform, and after calling a car, he went to the hospital himself, fully decorated. The political commissar system in the Soviet Union was first developed by the Provisional Government in 1917.123 The Bolsheviks invented this dual-command system as a mechanism to ensure Communist Party control over the military. Political officer (military) redirects to this article, yet this article is clearly discussing the "commissar" as a specific type of political officer which only existed during certain years prior to 1943. He was one of the original five Marshals of the Soviet Union, the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, and served as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the nominal Soviet head of state, from 1953 to 1960. Topic. In 1919, the title politruk (Russian: политрук, from политический руководитель, political leader) was assigned to political officers at company level, despite being official political commissars, they were not addressed as "commissar". Voroshilov was born in the settlement of Verkhnyeye, Bakhmut uyezd, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Russian Empire (now part of Lysychansk city in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine), into a railway worker's family of Russian ethnicity. At the end of 1944 more than 1,100 full-time and about 47,000 part-time instructors had been trained, under the control of General Hermann Reinecke, commander of the National Socialist leadership staff at the OKW. Again, in August 1940, the political commissars was abolished, yet the Military Councils continued throughout the German-Soviet War (1941–45), and afterwards. The officers, called NS Führungsoffizier (NSFO), drawn from convinced officers and selected by the Nazi Party Chancellor Martin Bormann were to instil ideological conviction and reinforce combat morale through training lessons and teaching. And he was personally devoted to Stalin. Voroshilov died on 2 December and was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. In the Red Army and the Soviet Army, the political commissar existed, by name, only during 1918–1924, 1937-40, and 1941–42 periods; not every Red Army political officer was a commissar. Voroshilov was active as a commander of the Southern Front during the Russian Civil War and the Polish–Soviet War while with the 1st Cavalry Army. They met while both exiled in Arkhangelsk, where Ekaterina was sent in 1906. Define political commissars. 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soviet political commissar 2021